During the Anglian glaciation, approximately 450,000 years ago, an ice sheet filled much of the North Sea, with a large proglacial lake in the southern part fed by the Rhine, Scheldt and Thames river systems.
The catastrophic overflow of this lake carved a channel through the anticline, leading to the formation of the Channel River, which carried the combined Scheldt and Thames rivers into the Atlantic.
It probably created the potential for Britain to become isolated from the continent during periods of high sea level, although some scientists argue that the final break did not occur until a second ice-dammed lake overflowed during the MIS8 or MIS6 glaciations, around 340,000 or 240,000 years ago.
During the most recent glaciation, the Last Glacial Maximum that ended in this area around 18,000 years ago, the North Sea and almost all of the British Isles were covered with glacial ice and the sea level was about 120 m (390 ft) lower than it is today.
After that the climate became warmer and during the Late Glacial Maximum much of the North Sea and English Channel was an expanse of low-lying tundra, around 12,000 BC extending to the modern northern point of Scotland
With the new technology there is now research on two more North Sea valleys being led by Mr. Gaffney. The project is funded by a European grant. Mr. Gaffney and his team hope to use remote sensing data to reconstruct the ancient landscape.
Besides this research, the team hopes to get some core sediment samples from the landscape to eventually create a map showing rivers, lakes, hills, and coastlines.
After the area slowly started sinking into the water, a storm surged and the sea levels rose abruptly, creating an island around 6,500 BC. One thousand years after the first storm, the whole island was then submerged and lost.
The team hopes to learn more about the lifestyles of the territories. One researcher from Wales says that the project will let the team look into the ways of the people and also what it was like to live in the Mesolithic period.
The new 4D technology will open up new doors for researchers and historians to find out more about territories, colonies, and people from thousands of years in the past.